(*a*) Variables (blue) that influence human WNND cases (red) either positively (green arrows) or negatively (black arrows), either directly, or via effects on mosquito populations (purple). Note that it is the product of mosquito abundance and prevalence that determines risk to humans. (*b*–*e*) The fitted relationships for the temperature-dependent (*b*) biting rate , (*c*) mortality rate , and (*d*) the inverse of the extrinsic incubation period (L.D.K., A. C. Matacchiero, A.T. Ciota & A.M.K. 2013, unpublished data) were used to generate (*e*) the resulting estimated relationships between temperature and partial-*R*_{0} for West Nile virus for *C. tarsalis* (triangles, dashed lines), *C. pipiens* (circles, solid lines) and *C. quinquefasciatus* (cross-hatches, dotted lines; see Material and methods). (Online version in colour.) |